Q1 - In your opinion how long would it take using your proposed spinal cord repair operation in conjunction with stem cells to repair spinal cord damage.

A1 - I believe it would only take three or four weeks and perhaps even a good deal less. You remember in the proposal where I mention a salamander's ability to grow back half of its heart in twelve hours or less (see pages 197 to 200 of Becker's book THE BODY ELECTRIC). The salamander can do that for two main reasons: 1) At the surgical location on the salamander heart, it is producing an adequate negative current of injury in the form of hydroxyl ions, and 2) The blood clot that forms at the amputation/surgical location is made up mainly of Salamander red blood corpuscles that still have their cell nucleus. These blood cells function/act as stem cells in the salamander. These salamander blood/stem cells adjacent to the surgical site immediately form a blastema and the rest of the blood clot/stem cells join into the forward moving blastema to complete the total heart structure in this nearly unbelievable time span.

Well we have a very analogous situation with our spinal cord operation when it is supplemented with adequate stem cell numbers. For instance, after the spinal cords have had controlled damage/abrasion done to them and the platinum electrodes have been implanted we will have the required negative current of injury in the form of hydroxyl ions, all that is needed now is blastema formation/development, which the stem cells can be used to greatly accelerate and maintain an accelerated repair work rate. Because of the metabolism rate/life span length differences between salamanders and man, I will quesstimate that it will take maybe twenty plus times longer to repair our spinal cord then that of a salamander, without an external (from outside of body) supply of stem cells. However, if a more than adequate supply number of stem cells, of the appropriate type, are constantly being made available at the damage/repair site it may be a much shorter time span for repair. Of course other helpful things can also be done to accelerate repair, i.e. application of laser light in certain wavelength ranges, ATP injection/insertion, DMSO usage to suppress inflamation/swelling induced damage from the operation, etc.

I hope my reasoning is clear enough for you, let me know if you need more clarification on anything.

Q 2- On the bottom of page five of your proposal, you mention the use of the patient's own activated adult stem cells removed from the patient's blood to be used to augment the operation procedure. Could you, in detail, elaborate on what you mean here?

A2 - First off, I am by no means an expert in stem cell technology. I, like large numbers of people, have read numerous articles on stem cells and I have had the good fortune to meet people who work in stem cell research. From my readings and communications with people who know stem cell technology, I can state with confidence that there are at least two stem cell types that the patient's body will not reject and therefore the patient will not need to take a life long regiment of anti- rejection drugs, which take down the patient's immune system and therefore lead to a whole host of infection problems, which can be quite life threatening. The first of these safe stem cell types is a sub set of umbilical cord stem cells which are effectively available for harvesting planet-wide. As long as these cells are not infected and are fresh (significantly younger than 90 days) they are usable with no rejection problems.

The second safe stem cell type is the patient's own activated adult stem cells removed from the patient's own blood. These cells were originally discovered by Dr. Royal Raymond Rife, using his Rife microscope (see the Febuary 1944 issue of the Journal of The Franklin Institute, Vol. 237, THE NEW MICROSCOPES, A Discussion by R. E. SEIDEL, M.D. AND M. ELIZABETH WINTER, Philadelphia, Pa., Pages 116 to 127). Dr. Rife discovered and observed that scattered throughout human tissue were small packets/compartments that were filled with large numbers of very condensed in size/volume cells, which he named pin point cells. Dr. Rife using his Rife microscope and its superb micro manipulator system including micro pipette was able to surgically open up these packets located in small tissue samples and remove the content into cell growth medium in petrie dishes where over the ensuing days and weeks these very condensed granular like cells transformed into the activated adult stem cells we are familiar with today. All of this information should have or could have been common knowledge, however Dr. Rife's work was highly suppressed by the forces of non enlightenment and greed (See note at bottom).

Currently several researchers have found ways to separate this condensed granular form of adult stem cells from human blood. They have also found various methods to get these cells to activate to varying degrees, so as to be usable for repair work in the human body. This condensed granular like form of adult stem cells occurs in human blood at an ultra high desity comparable to the density of platelet cells in human blood. Furthermore, these adult stem cells have a full complement of telomeres at the end of their chromosomes like that of a fetus before birth.

So, adult stem cells are readily availible from the patient's own blood by the many billions. They just need to be separated out and be properly activated for surgical injection/insertion use during and following the operation.

Note: The University of Southern California Medical School in 1934 set up The Special Medical Research Committee that oversaw the work of Dr. Royal Raymond Rife in three clinical trials carried out in 1934, 1935, and 1937. Dr. Rife had a 95+% cure rate for the common cancers types that occured during the 1930's. He had found that the common cancers of the 1930's were caused by a near virus sized microbe and that cancer cells were full of these microbes. He discovered that these microbes could be destroyed by an ultrasound frequency of 1,604,000 cycles per second. When these microbes were destroyed inside the cancer cell using 1,604,000 cycles per second of ultrasound, the cancer cell would be so disrupted that it was destroyed as well as the microbes. Also, by 1939 Dr. Rife had found the lethal ultrasound frequencies associated with microbes and viruses that caused 52 major diseases. This was all verified by the USC Special Medical Committee, which then suppressed all the reseach information.

P.S. - Be sure to read the Q and A just preceeding this one.

Q3 - How critical is the actual placement of the platinum needle into the spinal cord end sections and what about damage to the cord by the needles?

A3 - Close examination of the spinal cord shows that it is highly vasculated and made up of various cell types that are well connected and held together by overlapping and tangled together fibers of the triple stranded protein of collagen, which is an n-type semiconductor. If a platinum needle with a negative potential, that is maintained on it, is inserted into the spinal cord end section there will be a negative electric current in the form of hydroxyl ions flowing off the platinum needle, but also since the platinum needle will be in physical contact (electrical contact) with the local collagen fiber matrix, this n-type semiconductor matrix will also be producing hydroxyl ion current.

So, instead of a very localized surface (platinum needle surface) generating all the hydroxyl ions, the ions are generated over a small, but significant volume of tissue surrounding the platinum needle electrode. These hydroxyl ions diffuse throughout the local tissue region and draw in mainly positive metal ions to balance off against the negative charge of the hydroxyl ions. This negative current induced mixture of hydroxyl and positive metal ions supplies the needed positive ion concentrations and ph to support blastema formation at the surgical/wound site (Refer to Figure 7A of Reference 1 of the proposal). Figure 7A will give a qualitative idea of just how large an effective zone of hydroxyl ions and increased positive metal ions can be. Just imagine the rat leg/arm amputation site being one end of the surgically cut spinal cord. In other words the re-growth distance in Figure 7A is large enough, before diffusion driven hydroxyl ion concentrations become too low to continue tissue growth, that the platinum needle has some considerable slop in its potential placement position and there will still be successful results achieved. But yes, closer to the spinal cord surgery/controlled damage site is better.

Now as for the damage caused by the platinum needle. This damage can be greatly mitigated by the use of very thin needles that are very sharp pointed, which displace tissue, but only do real damage along the point tip pathway. And remember all significant damage caused by the needle's insertion will be attempted to be repaired by the repair process the needle is supporting. As the needle is withdrawn there should be little damage left behind and that damage can be healed up with the assistance of laser light.

Q4 - The spinal cord damage site can be anywhere along the spinal cord and the cross sectional area of the spinal cord of people will vary greatly in size, i.e. small children to large adults. How do you determine the needed negative current required to be flowing off the platinum needle at a particular spinal cord location in a particular person? How do you know you are providing just that negative current that is required?

A4 - The cross sectional area of the spinal cord damage site can be determined from high resolution MRI or cat scan, since the cross sectional geometry of the spinal cord is well known and once one of the main dimensions is known the cross sectional area can be easily calculated. After the cross sectional area is known, we need to refer back to the Becker rat foreleg amputation and re-growth experiments from 1971 as discussed on pages 152 to 155 in the book THE BODY ELECTRIC. Surgeons who wish to use Beckerís experimental data to be able to calculate the usable negative current ranges for a particular spinal cord operation will need to obtain copies of Dr. Beckerís published article and the paper presented to the New York Academy of Medicine as discussed on page 154. Surgeons will need to determine the cross sectional area of the rat forearm at the amputation site and then divide this cross sectional area into the cross sectional area of the spinal cord damage site to be operated on. That number or ratio is then multiplied by optimum current found for rat forearm regeneration results (see pages 4 and 5 of the proposal) to obtain the needed current to be sent to each of the platinum needles used in the spinal cord regeneration/repair operation (assuming one platinum needle in each cord end). If two platinum needles are used in each spinal cord end, then the calculated current value is half in each needle.

If you want to know that you are providing the right/calculated needed current to each of the platinum needles used, then you need to actually continually measure the current flowing to the needles. This is easily done by inserting a pico/nano amp meter between the resistor and silver plate in the circuit in Figures 2 and 3 of the proposal (Put in Google: Keithley Picoammeter). If the surgeon does not want to use the circuit in Figures 2 and 3 of the proposal, then he should have his electronics tech replace it with a feeble variable voltage power supply in series with a high ohm resistor that is in series with the pico/nano amp meter. The two output connections from this series combination go to the patient. The negative output connection to the platinum needles and the positive output connector to a pure platinum plate on the patientís skin surface that has electrically conductive gel under the platinum plate.

Q5 - Where do you obtain the platinum plated needles used in the operation?

A5 - The platinum plated needles used in the operation have to be fabricated. If I were a surgeon and wanted some of these needles, here is what I would do. I would contact a company that fabricates Teflon coated non-magnetic alloy 316 stainless steel wire (type into Google: Teflon coated non-magnetic 316 stainless steel wire for medical use). I would find that some of these companies are already supplying Teflon coated 316 stainless steel wire for medical use. I would ask them to quote me a price for them to: 1) Strip off a certain length of the Teflon coating on Teflon coated 316 stainless steel wire of a specific length. The stripped off length of Teflon coating will be the length of the platinum plated needle. The rest of the wire length chosen is determined by which electrical circuit the surgeon and electronic tech opt for., 2) Have a precision machinist micro-grind the exposed 316 stainless steel wire end into a finely pointed tapered needle and then micro polish the needle., 3) Have the 316 stainless steel needle/wire end plated with a heavy platinum plating. Great care is to be taken to not bend or dull the needle point., and 4) A selection of various wire gauges probably ranging from around 24 to 30 gauge should be used along with various lengths of needles should be chosen. A large number of wire needles should be ordered at one time to keep the average cost per platinum plated wire needle down.

Q6- How do you know when to take the platinum needles and the Teflon coated wires out?

A6 - In my original answer to this question, I used a MRI machine to monitor spinal cord tissue growth to cross the gap. However, the non-magnetic stainless steel alloy 316 wire I proposed using turns out to act as a radio antenna for the strong approximately 60 mega hertz radio waves used by the MRI unit for imaging and this antenna coupling would probably cause spinal cord tissue burning where the platinum needles are placed in the cord. Therefore, the MRI is out and we are left with Cat Scan and ultrasound to monitor spinal cord growth. Once the Cat Scan or ultrasound shows the spinal cord has fully reconnected, the teflon coated wires connected to the platinum plated needles can be pulled out with pathways closing immediately behind them.

Q7 - How do you keep the Teflon coated wires from accidentally being pulled/tugged on and therefore pulling out or moving the platinum plated needles from their proper position inside the spinal cord?

A7 - There are at least two problems to overcome, so that the Teflon coated wires are not pulled in such a way as to dislodge or relocate the platinum plated needles. The first thing to do is to super glue the Teflon coated wire to the dead skin layer at a location an inch or so from where the wires come out of the surgical wound. This can easily be done by properly cleaning the dead skin layer and then sliding an electrical wire splicing sleeve over the Teflon coated wire and crimping it down onto the wire at the location to be super glued. You then just super glue the splicing sleeve to the dead skin layer. As a backup safety, you can super glue a second splicing sleeve at a location half an inch away from the first one. Now you need to cover the wire exiting the wound area and the first glued down splicing sleeve with a shallow plastic cup-like cover that is taped to the patientís back or neck region. The purpose of the cup is to not have the wires touched or moved around in any way during the regeneration process.

There is however, one more potentially serious problem to deal with, namely swelling of the surgical wound area following surgery. If the Teflon coated wire is embedded in or butted up against the flesh of the closed off surgical wound and the tissue begins to swell up significantly, we can expect the wire to be drawn upward/outward from the body with the upward/outward movement of the swelling tissue. This problem can be mitigated in at least two ways. First, the use of anti inflammatory drugs, i.e. DMSO, etc.. Secondly, the use of a short length of thin walled Teflon tubing acting as a sheath for the Teflon coated wire in the wound closure region. This Teflon sheath would extend from a little above the dura matter coating the spinal cord to just outside the closed surgical wound. The Teflon sheath can be moved by the swelling process while the Teflon coated wire inside is free to slide relative to the sheath and keep its platinum plated needle end in place. The Teflon coated wire inside the sheath needs to be coated in a gel that is heavily doped with antibiotics and a high concentration of a high quality colloidal silver.

ADDENDUM TO A7 ----- Date: 8/5/11

Since initially writing A7, I have had the good fortune and pleasure to have a long detailed conversation with a very skilled and experienced neurosurgeon about Q7. He informed me how he would approach and solve the potential problems associated with the operation and Q7. He would tie off (suture) the Teflon wires to tissue at the inner exit to the spinal cord channel, so as to stabilize and hold the platinum plated needles in place. However, the needles could still be easily removed later by just pulling the wires out. He would use steroids (since he cannot use DMSO by FDA decree) to suppress swelling of the surgical region. Furthermore, since the needed electric current is so feeble, the current supply device can be made quite small and be implanted under the skin adjacent to the surgery site, so that there is no exposed anything to worry about.

I so much appreciated his expert input to the problem, I have designed and built a physical mockup of the implant to be used by those surgeons that do not suffer under FDA like authorities. Figure A illustrates the construction of the implant device, which is in reality the circuits of Figures 2 and 3 on pages 15 and 16 of the proposal. Figure B illustrates how to test and verify the implant is operating properly before implantation. Keep in mind that this is only a crude first attempt mockup of the implant device. It can be made much smaller in its main body size and much smaller wire size can be used.

What follows are instructions for fabrication of the implant and pictures of my first attempt to fabricate a realistic mockup of the implant device. I am turning all rights to this implant device into public domain. Let us get the days of spinal cord paralyses behind us. See pictures.

1) Clean off oxide layer on long strip of pure silver ribbon using ultra fine steel wool.
2) Use medium rough sand paper to sand/rough up one side of clean pure silver ribbon. This is done so that silver conductive epoxy will adhere well to the ribbon surface.
3) Cut off a short chosen length of silver ribbon.
4) Take the 1/8 watt high ohm (5M ohm to 10M ohm) carbon resistor and cut one of its leads to just under the length of the previously cut length of silver ribbon.
5) Take the other lead of the carbon resistor and rap it around the end of a drill bit forming a tight coil. Chose a drill bit that has approximately a diameter slightly larger than twice the diameter of the two bare stainless steel wire ends you are going to silver epoxy inside the tightly wound coil.
6) Clean off the straight wire on the carbon resistor with very fine steel wool and lay it along the center length of the silver on the sanded side and with the wire end on the far end of the ribbon and just inside the edge of the ribbon. Now add a small dab of silver conductive epoxy on top of the wire at the far end location and wait for it to cure.
7) Add silver conductive epoxy inside tightly wound coil. Add silver conductive epoxy to one of the two wire bare ends and insert them both inside coil and let the epoxy cure.
8) Paint a layer of electrically insulating lacquer type material, such as clear finger nail polish over the entire carbon resistor and on the silver conductive epoxied coil end of the carbon resistor and let it dry/cure. Repeat whole process one more time.
9) Fold carbon resistor lead over 180 degrees, so that the newly silver conductive epoxied wire leads are going off the other end of the silver ribbon.
10) Now cover completely the sanded side of ribbon with silicone along with carbon resistor and its epoxied coil and let it cure.

UPDATE SUPPLEMENT TO A7 ---- DATE: 2/7/12 Using the same implant fabrication steps 1 thru 10 listed above, I have fabricated a new realistic implant mockup like that which would actually be used in the actual operation (see pictures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

Q8 - Can gold plated needles be used in place of platinum plated needles?

A8 - Yes, gold plated needles can be used in place of platinum plated needles. I only used platinum plated needles in the proposal, because Dr. Becker did almost all of his experimental work, which I depended on for the proposal's foundation, with platinum wire. However, there is a significant difference in work functions between platinum and gold. It will therefore be necessary to perform the measurement experiment illustrated in Figure B of Addendum To A7 using gold plated needles in place of platinum plated needles and the resistor value is to be adjusted downward in value until a current value equivalent to using platinum plated needles with the old resistor values is achieved. Note that in Figure B the resistor is hidden out of sight behind the silver flat plate electrode suspended in the salt solution. You will needed to build a realistic implant. Be sure to have a competent electrical tech on your team. As a practical matter gold platers are much more common/available then platinum platers. May god be with you.

You now have the needed implant for surgery (see Figure A) and pictures of steps of the fabrication process.


Gary Wade